Living in a climate with a winter season is enjoyable. You can enjoy some skiing, watch the calming snowfall, maybe pack a snowball and throw it at your friends.
However, winter has its drawbacks for gardeners. Cold weather shortens the growing season for outdoor growers. This means that starting pepper plants indoors is necessary.
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This article will cover the basics on how to start pepper plants inside at the beginning of the growing season. Maybe you saved some seeds from last year, or you’re growing for the first time.
We will focus on peppers, but these guidelines can also apply to many other slower growing nightshade plants, like tomatoes and eggplants. Let’s get started!
When To Start Pepper Seeds Indoors
One of the best ways to increase your pepper plant’s yield is to start from seed indoors in late winter. This allows the pepper plants to fully mature by the end of the season, producing maximum ripened peppers.
In general, pepper plants need about 8 weeks indoors before transitioning to a permanent outdoor spot.
Exactly when to start your peppers will vary based on your region, but a general rule of thumb is to start seeds indoors 8 weeks before your last date of frost. In warmer regions, the growing season will be longer, and plants can be started earlier to extend the grow season.
In Northern climates, plants are typically started later (we start in early or mid-March). With the proper grow light setup, you can start your plants very early to truly maximize the growing season.
Note: If you are growing superhot varieties, start them 2 weeks earlier than other pepper varieties – they take a long time to mature!
For an exact recommended start date, enter your postal code here.
How To Start Pepper Plants Indoors
When starting seeds, they require little or no nutrition to germinate. This is because the seeds themselves contain the necessary nutrition to get started. All that a pepper seed needs to begin germination is water, oxygen and a warm temperature.
See our top tips for germinating pepper seeds fast here.
For peppers, the best seed starting soil is something organic with good aeration. This mix on Amazon will work well, as it contains peat moss and perlite to promote healthy root structure.
Tip: It is important to use new seed starting soil when starting plants indoors to avoid insects and mold. Using leftover seed starter indoors can invite these pests into your home, so beware!
Starting your seeds generally consists of the following steps. Keep in mind that the germination process is usually pretty quick for peppers, and transplanting to larger pots with nutrient-rich soil is next.
How to Start Pepper Seeds:
- Choose a starter soil.
Starter soils have no nutrients. We recommend something organic like this one on Amazon.
- Get seed starter containers.
We love these built-to-last trays. The trays should have a humidity dome to keep the seed mix moist during germination.
- Pre-water the soil.
This helps with root formation and better water absorption in the future. Thoroughly mix with water until the soil is damp and sticks together when squeezed, but doesn’t drip.
- Fill containers with soil, compressing lightly.
Compress until you feel resistance, and then add more soil until each cell is filled to the top.
- Push a finger 1/4 inch into the soil.
1/4 is deep enough. Any deeper and the seedlings may have trouble surfacing above the soil. Alternatively, place the seeds on the surface and push them below the soil with a pen or pencil tip.
- Drop 2+ seeds into each hole.
If you have limited seed quantities, just use one seed per container. Using 2 seeds is common practice to ensure that at least one of the seeds germinates. If you end up having both seeds sprout, you can simply pluck one of them.
- Cover with soil.
- Water lightly.
Use a spray bottle if possible to lightly mist and moisten the soil above the seed. This ensures enough moisture is on the seed to initiate germination.
- Keep warm with a seedling heat mat.
We use this affordable heating mat from Amazon to keep our seedlings around 80°F. It comes with a probe that stays in the soil, measuring the temperature and automatically turning on and off the mat to reach the desired temperature. Highly recommended for the best germination rates!
- Keep in a dim and warm area.
Seeds typically take around 7-10 days to sprout, and before sprouting they do not need much light. The ideal temperature is between 80-90°F. This will ensure that the seeds germinate as quickly as possible.
Mist as necessary, or provide water to the bottom of the trays to keep the soil moist (but not soaking wet). Once the seeds sprout, immediately move them under grow lights.
Tip: If your grow room is cool, try placing a heating pad beneath the seed trays on low heat for a few hours per day. This can help give stubborn seeds a boost.
After your seeds have sprouted, you will need to provide ample lighting. Without enough light, your plants will grow to be leggy and weak. This may translate to a tall, lanky pepper plant that could under-produce.
To give your seed starts the light they need, we highly recommend using a grow light.
Which Grow Light Is Best For Starting Seeds?
Seed germination does not require light. However, once the seeds have sprouted, a grow light should be used. This will allow the leaves to photosynthesize and produce their first sets of leaves efficiently.
Can I Use A Sunny Window?
It is common for gardeners to simply place seedlings in a sunny windowsill for light. While this may seem like enough, it is not for peppers. When choosing a window for your seedlings, consider these factors:
- Is the window south-facing?
- Are there any obstructions to the sunlight outside? Trees? Fencing?
- How many hours of sunlight does the window actually receive?
- How far north are you? The farther north, the less winter sunlight you are receiving each day.
The reality of most windowsills in not ideal for young seedling growth. Your seedlings need LOTS of strong light for at least 12 hours per day, but ideally for 16-18 hours.
While a windowsill will certainly help the plants grow, you will likely find that they become leggy (tall and lanky). It is also typically cold near windows, leading to slower growth. This can cause weaker plants and lower yields.
What Kind Of Light To Use?
There are an overwhelming number of grow light options available. For the purposes of this article, we will recommend two grow lights. One for a casual grower with 5-10 small pepper plants, and one for a larger project, with 10-20+ plants.
If you expand your garden, you can always use additional grow lights and be creative with your setup.
- The Clip-On Grow Light.
This light is affordable and does not require any hanging to position the lights. You can simply clip the light onto a table, plug it in, and bend the lights to the desired height. This particular light on Amazon also has a built-in timer to have the light turn on and off at different intervals. This is key while your seedlings are growing!
*Don’t expect these cheap clip lights to last very long, we have already had one of ours stop working after about a year. The convenience is attractive, but investing a bit more money goes a long way.
- The Hanging Grow Light.
A hanging grow light typically requires more setup and space but also has more power to grow larger plants. A hanging light also allows the plants to grow taller by moving the light up as the plants make progress.
A clip-on light may have a limit to how high the plants can grow. Hanging lights can also be bought with more wattage and power. Be careful though! Too much light can cause damage to tender plants.
For another quality light option, try this unit from Spider Farmer.
This is by no means a comprehensive list of grow lights. One of these will almost certainly be adequate for starting your pepper seeds indoors. If you are looking to do full-grown plants, you may want to consider a larger lighting setup, and perhaps even a grow tent.
How Close Should A Grow Light Be To Seedlings?
This is a critical element of starting plants indoors. Once your seedlings sprout, you want your lights to be as close as possible to the plants without causing damage.
For typical LED grow lights with low power (~20W), the lights should be positioned 2-3 inches above your seedlings. Stronger lights (80-150W) should be much higher, between 18-24″. Lights can be closer as the plants grow larger and more hardy.
Keep the lights on for 2-3 weeks on a 16-hour-on, 8-hour-off schedule. If the plants appear to have burning or wrinkling, the lights may be too close to the foliage. Move the lights higher to avoid further plant damage.
As the plants grow larger and begin to fill out their foliage, they will outgrow the small seed starting trays. This is when we will transplant the pepper plants into larger pots indoors.
Tip: Be sure you have enough lighting for the number of pepper plants that you have. If you use inadequate lighting, your plants will not reach maximum potential.
Transplanting & Fertilizing
If you started seeds in small seed trays, they will soon need a larger container. Once your seedlings reach 2-3 inches in height, it is time to transplant to a larger pot. With proper lighting, the plants will develop a strong root system. This will help make transplanting easy.
Steps to transplanting your started plants:
- Get 3-inch nursery pots. These are perfect. Or, just use solo cups.
- Get some standard potting mix. Get something with a full range of nutrients. Miracle-Gro or an organic alternative will work fine.
- Pre-moisten the potting soil. Wet the mix with water and mix thoroughly until evenly moistened, but not soaked.
- Fill each pot with soil. Fill the pots with soil, compressing until you feel some resistance. Don’t over-compress, but don’t be too gentle either!
- Dig out a hole. Make sure it’s large enough to fit your started plant’s root system.
- Place each plant in its own pot. Be careful not to damage the root system while handling the plant. Try to pull the plant out at the base of its stem. Loosening the soil slightly can help. Also, make sure the started plants are watered before transplanting.
- Cover with soil and compress. Be sure to avoid burying any of the plant stems. Keep the plant at the same level above the soil where it was before. Young pepper stems can rot if buried with moist soil.
- Water immediately. Water thoroughly to ensure the root system is moist and integrates well.
This is almost an identical process to starting the seeds, but instead of putting seeds into the soil, you’re moving your plants. Giving your starts adequate soil and space allows the plants to continue to grow without getting stunted. Without enough room, the plants will stop growing.
Once you have transplanted your peppers, it is time to start your fertilizer regimen. Potting mix often contain some fertilizer, but it is best to supplement with the ideal nutrients regularly.
At this stage, we like to start lightly fertilizing every 2 weeks with a nitrogen-rich fertilizer. Any fertilizer with an even 5-5-5 or 10-10-10 makeup will work well. Use at 1/2 the recommended strength. Don’t water too heavily when fertilizing, and be sure not to over-soak the soil.
We use this fertilizer for early growth.
We switch to this fish-based fertilizer once the plants have been outdoors for 2-3 weeks in an established location.
Tip: Make sure you have good drainage for your pots. If the water is forced to stay in the soil, it can cause rotting and insufficient oxygen levels.
As the plants grow larger, and your lights are moved higher, the light will become more scattered and less effective. The plants will either need stronger artificial lighting or be moved outdoors into the sunlight.
Hardening Off Pepper Plants
After the risk of frost has passed in your area, you can begin hardening off your pepper plants. “Hardening off” is the process of transitioning your plants from indoors to outdoors.
It may be tempting to simply put your plants directly into the ground, but this will likely cause shock to the plants. Shocking your plants can cause stunted growth, and even yellowing and death.
The proper method is to gradually keep the plants outside for longer and longer each day. Doing so allows your pepper plants to get used to the elements, like direct sunlight, wind, and varying temperatures.
Here is our method for hardening off plants:
- 1st week: 20 minutes sunlight, or 1 hour of shade
- 2nd week: 1 hour sunlight, or 3-4 hours of shade
- 3rd week: 1.5-2 hours sunlight, or all day in shade
- 4th week: Transplant outdoors permanently
This can be time-consuming and tedious, but if you keep your plants on a tray or a wagon, it can make the moving process easy. You can also do this more aggressively, as our method is very conservative and safe.
For a full pepper growing guide, read our article on growing Habanero peppers here!
Once your plants are used to the outdoors, you can transplant into the ground or large nursery pots for the season. Make sure they get the nutrients and sunlight they need. Enjoy and good luck!